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PATLAB is equipped with an Agilent 5500 ideal multiple-user research system for atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with an electrochemical scanning microprobe microscopy (EC-SPM) to study the behaviour and kinetics of electrochemical micro- and nanoprobes in real time, Pico-TREC for simultaneous topography and recognition imaging with SPM for mapping target molecules on a sampling surface ideally suited for nanoelectrode sensor structuring and modifying, lithography and nanomanipulation with micro machining through force variations, nano patterning via probe bias and electrochemical etching, nano writing and nano modification via surface potential controlled deposition. The system is engineered for advanced research in electrochemistry, material science, polymer science, health and life sciences and biotechnology.

MAC (magnetic AC) Mode AFM

In atomic force microscopy (AFM), a sharp tip is scanned over a sample while maintaining a constant interatomic force between atoms on the end of the tip and atoms on the surface of interest. Early implementation of AFM employed the contact mode of operation in which the repulsive force experienced by the tip was measured by recording the cantilever deflection. Under ambient conditions, these repulsive forces range from a few to hundreds of nanonewtons. The forces between the AFM tip and the sample cause pressures large enough to induce distortion, remove portions of the sample from the substrate, and even damage the tip. By scanning in a liquid, capillary forces are reduced, which decreases the forces between the tip and sample by orders of magnitude. Other forces such as contact pressures, however, can still lead to dulling of the AFM tip and deformation of soft biological samples.

An effective method to reduce destructive lateral forces and to enhance sensitivity and reproducibility involves dynamic oscillation of the AFM tip while imaging. MAC mode AFM was developed [1] to reduce damage-causing vertical interactions between the sample and the AFM tip. In MAC mode, a cantilever coated with a paramagnetic film is oscillated directly by a solenoid located underneath or above the sample. The oscillation amplitude that is utilized to drive the cantilever in MAC mode is better controlled and can be much smaller than that used in other dynamic-force AFM modes (acoustic AC mode, “tapping” mode) [2]. Due to its high resolution and ability to image in fluid, MAC mode with AFM has gained acceptance in the fields of biophysics, structural biology and molecular biology. MAC mode AFM gives detailed structural information about DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids, live cells and sub-cellular structures in native environments.

[1] Han et al, APL 69 (1996), 4111 - 4114.

[2] Hansma et al, APL 64 (1994), 1738 - 1740.

TREC (Topography and Recognition Imaging)

PicoTREC is a relatively new technique which offers fast binding site mapping as well as topographic imaging across a surface with nanometer resolution. It has been successfully applied to several model receptor-ligand pairs and some live cell surfaces. PicoTREC has been used to simultaneously record two separate images, one that provides the topography of target molecules on a surface and another that displays a map of specifically recognized target molecules on a surface [3]. Using MAC mode, PicoTREC, and optimized AFM cantilevers, a ligand can be kept in close proximity to the surface, allowing efficient recognition and gentle interaction between tip and sample during scanning. PicoTREC resolves molecular recognition during the lateral scan by processing the asymmetric reduction of the oscillation amplitude. In this way, the locations of target molecules are easily determined from their coordinates on the recognition image. This method eliminates requirements for secondary reporter systems. For example, no fluorescence, radioactivity, or enzyme-linked detection schemes are needed when using PicoTREC. Furthermore, the system is extremely sensitive, since single molecule interactions are readily detected. PicoTREC can be used for nanometer-scale epitope mapping of biomolecules, to localize receptor sites during biological processes, or to expedite force spectroscopy studies on areas of interest [4].

[3] Stroh et al, PNAS 101 (2004), 12503 - 12507.

[4] Kada et al, Nanotoday 3 (2008), 12 - 19.


PATLAB has a Shimadzu 3600 UV-VIS-NIR spectrometer. The spectrophotometer is equipped with 3 detectors: a PMT detector (photomultiplier tube) for the ultraviolet and visible regions, and InGaAs and PbS detectors for near infrared region. The InGaAs detector bridges the gap between the PMT - PbS switching wavelength where sensitivity is typically low to ensure high sensitivity over the entire measurement wavelength range with <0.00003 Abs noise at 1500 nm.

Ultra-low stray light (0.00005% or less at 340 nm) is achieved at high resolution (highest resolution 0.1 nm) with the high performance double monochromator,. The instrument has a measurement wavelength range of 185 - 3300 nm allowing measurement over a wide range including the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared regions. This allows spectroscopic analysis in a wide variety of fields.

Technical Characteristics:-

Wavelength range                               185nm - 3300nm

Spectral Bandwidth                            8 steps in ultraviolet/visible region 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 nm
                                                                 10 steps in near-infrared region 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 20, 32 nm

Resolution                                             0.1 nm

Sampling Pitch                                     0.01 - 5 nm

Wavelength accuracy                         UV/VIS region: ± 0.2 nm NIR region: ±0. 8 nm

Wavelength repeatability                   UV/VIS region: less than ±0.08 nm NIR region: less than ±0.32 nm

Stray light                                              < 0.00008% (220 nm, NaI)

                                                                 < 0.00005% (340 nm, NaNO2)

                                                                  < 0.0005% (1420 nm, H2O)

                                                                 < 0.005% (2365 nm, CHCl3)

Photometric range                              -6 to 6 Abs

Noise                                                      0.00005 Abs or less (500 nm), 0.00008 Abs or less (900 nm), 0.00003 Abs or less (1500 nm)
                                                                 Slit width 2nm, RMS value at 1 sec. response

Photometric System                           Double beam


The Cyberscan PCD 6500 pH/Ion/Conductivity/Dissolved Oxygen (DO) multimeter in PATLAB measures and views up to four parameters at the same time with no cross-channel reference. It is a CE-Driven Full-Colour Touchscreen 21 CFR Part 11-compliant Bench meter with a real-time on-screen multichannel, single channel or graphical analysis functions to give quick, convenient analysis of data with advanced, extensive communication capabilities with USB. The Cyberscan multimeter features very well into the research program of PATLAB on research projects for water quality testing, sewage treatment, waste water management, food processing, industrial process control, pharmaceutical production, health care, paper and pulp processing and chemical industries.

Technical Characteristics:-

Product Specification Description

pH Range                                                                                                -2.000 to 20.000 pH

Resolution & Accuracy                                                                0.1/0.01/0.001 pH & ±0.002 pH

mV Range                                                                                                 -1800 to +1800 mV

Resolution & Accuracy                                                                            0.1 mV & ±0.1 mV

Ion Concentration Range                                                                      1 x 10-7 to 9.99 x 1010

Resolution & Accuracy                                                                        4 sig. figures & ±0.17n%

DO Range                                                                                                 0 to 60 ppm, 0 to 600%

Resolution & Accuracy                                                                     0.01/0.10% & 0.1% + 1 LSD

Conductivity Range                                                                                  0 to 500 mS/cm

Resistivity Range                                                                           3 ohm cm to 100 megohm cm

Salinity Range                                                                                                    0 to 90 ppt

Accuracy                                                                                                 0.5% full scale + 1 LSD

Cell Constant                                                                                                   0.1, 1.0, 10.0

Temperature Range                                                                               -5.0 to 105.0 °C (Meter)

Resolution & Accuracy                                                                                 0.1 °C & ±0.2 °C

No. of pH Calibration Points                                                                                  Up to 5  

pH Buffer Options                                                                                      USA: 2, 4, 7, 10, 12
                                                                                                           NIST: 1.68, 4.01. 6.86, 9.18, 12.45
                                                                                                                       Euro: 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12 

No. of Ion Calibration Points                                                                                      5

Incremental methods                                                                                        KA, KS, AA, AS

Temperature Compensation                                                            Automatic / Manual (0 to 100 °C)

DO Testing                                                                                          5-day BOD, OUR and SOUR testing

Automatic Barometric Pressure Compensation                                       450 to 825 mmHg

Memory                                                                                          10,000 Data Sets with Date/Time stamping  

Programmable data storage/output                                                   On stable, time and manual

Output                                                                                                                USB, IRDA, RS232C

Print Interval                                                                                                           3 to 86400 sec

Electrode Input                                                                      FET (solid-state non-glass) or Glass pH electrode

Display                                                                                                              640x480 digit LCD

Power                                                                                                           9VDC, 3.3A center negative


PATLAB has 5 METROHM Autolab Potentiostat electrochemical instruments. Of these instruments 3 different modules from the older generation are available to expand the possibilities of the Autolab main units: PGSTAT12, PGSTAT30 and PGSTAT100. These Autolab computer controlled electrochemical instruments can be controlled from two different software packages: GPES for electrochemical techniques and FRA for impedance spectroscopy (in combination with a FRA2 module). The combination of the Autolab hard- and software gives the user an unrivalled instrument to perform a wide range of electrochemical experiments. PATLAB recently acquired the latest 2 METROHM Autolab PGSTATS128N with the NOVA software package. The following is a general model of the main METROHM Autolab PGSTAT UNIT structure.


The METROHM Autolab/PGSTAT12 is a modular low-current, low noise potentiostat/galvanostat capable of measuring or applying a maximum current of 250 mA, with a compliance voltage of 12 V and the possibility to do iR-compensation. In combination with one or more of the optional modules, the instrument can be used for any kind of electrochemical


The METROHM Autolab/PGSTAT30 is a modular high current potentiostat/galvanostat with a maximum current of 1 A, a compliance voltage of 30 V and the possibility to do iR-compensation. The instrument offers the same capabilities as the PGSTAT12, but has a bandwidth of over 1 MHz and is, in combination with the FRA2 module, especially dedicated to do Impedance Spectroscopy. The PGSTAT30/FRA2 system is capable of measuring impedances in the range from 1 mOhm up to 100 GOhm and capacitances from 0.1 pF up to 5000 F and can be used in fields like corrosion research, bio-electrochemistry, battery and supercapacitor research and many other areas. Another possible configuration is the PGSTAT30 with BSTR10A or BSTR20A for experiments at high currents (10A and 20A respectively). This configuration also operates in combination with the FRA2. Of course all the other modules are available for the PGSTAT30 as well. The PGSTAT30 can operate in four electrodes (for liquid-liquid measurements for example) as well as in three electrode mode.

The METROHM Autolab/PGSTAT100 is a modular high voltage potentiostat/galvanostat capable of measuring or applying a maximum current of 250 mA, a compliance voltage of 100 V and the possibility to do iR-compensation. The instrument offers the same possibilities as the PGSTAT12 and PGSTAT30 and is especially suited for experiments in electrolytes with low conductivity. All optional modules (except the MUX) are available for the Autolab/PGSTAT100.

The following picture shows Autolab/PGSTAT100 research high voltage potentiostat/galvanostat in operation in PATLAB.

Autolab/PGSTAT100 in PATLAB

The entry level member of the modular Autolab instruments family, the PGSTAT128N is a low current, low noise and fast potentiostat/galvanostat capable of measuring maximum 800 mA, with a compliance voltage of 12 V. The PGSTAT128N is a high performance low cost option for electrochemical measurements in small cells. 

Autolab PGSTAT128N

Designed for a wide range of electrochemical applications, from corrosion measurements to the characterization of energy storage devices, this budget instrument is the ideal choice for electrochemical applications where performance is important. One can customize and enhance the capabilities of the PGSTAT128N by adding one or more of the many available optional modules or accessories. 

Key features                                                                                                        Compatible modules


Electrode connections         2, 3 and 4                                                              EQCM

Potential range                      +/- 10 V                                                                 FRA32M

Compliance voltage              +/- 12 V                                                                 BA

Maximum current                  +/- 800 mA (10 A with BOOSTER10A)               BOOSTER10A

Current ranges                      1 A to 10 nA (100 pA with ECD module)           ECD

Potential accuracy                +/- 0.2 %                                                                SCAN250

Potential resolution              0.3 µV                                                                    ADC10M

Current accuracy                  +/- 0.2 %                                                                MUX

Current resolution                 0.0003 % (of current range)                               FI20

Input impedance                    > 1 Tohm                                                              pX1000

Potentiostat bandwidth        500 kHz                                                                 ECN

Computer interface               USB  

Control software                   NOVA  


The Autolab Surface Plasma Resonance (SPR) instrumentation helps the scientist to analyze bi-molecular interactions in real time, without labelling requirements.

Autolab Surface Plasma Resonance (SPR)

The Autolab ESPRIT allows the user to perform high-throughput SPR experiments using a fully automated system including a reference channel for temperature and non-specific binding compensation. The Autolab Esprit is a unique double channel Surface Plasma Resonance (SPR) instrument with an autosampler incorporated with a normal standard cuvette for all Surface Plasma Resonance (SPR) measurements where biomolecular interactions are studied and a normal cuvette is standard supplied for all SPR measurements where biomolecular interactions are studied. The optional electrochemical cuvette allows measurements on a 3-electrode system: a fixed contact point to the gold layer of the sensor disk, the gold operates as working electrode, replaceable Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a fixed Platinum counter electrode.

ESPRIT (SPR) coupled to Potentiostat/Galvanostat


The SECM370 is a precision scanning micro-electrode system, which can be used to monitor (or impose) current flowing between a micro-electrode and a specimen surface in solution at extremely high spatial resolutions.


It can be used to examine, analyse or alter the surface chemistry of a sample in solution. This equipment has many potential applications in the study of fundamentals of surface reactions for example in flow through membranes, chemical imaging of biosystems, corrosion science, or the study of enzyme stabilization. The SECM370 system includes a precision dual potentiostat system, allowing full control and measurement of electrochemical processes at the micro-electrode tip and substrate independently.

15. COMPACTSTAT.h: Portable Electrochemical Interface & Impedance Analyser

The IVIUM COMPACTSTAT.h is a Portable Electrochemical Interface & Impedance Analyser that can be operated via the USB port from a PC, without additional power supply.

                                                                                                                                                                IVIUM COMPACTSTAT          

 In combination with a laptop-computer, the Ivium CompactStat provides a truly mobile electrochemical measurement station for corrosion and analytical applications.

• Low noise and galvanic isolation:

  The instrument is electrically isolated from power lines and PC. It has superior noise immunity, and is capable of determining very small signals, such as required in nano-technology applications. Also, the instrument may be applied in situations where the sample must be disconnected from a common ground (floating).  

• Complete solution:  

  The CompactStat offers a complete package; all the standard Electrochemical techniques are included. The CompactStat also has an integrated high-performance Frequency Response Analyser for EIS measurements from 10µHz to 3MHz. All measurement and dataprocessing software is included (for Windows based pc’s).

• Automation:  

  Multiple analog and digital input & output ports are available for monitoring & control of peripheral equipment. This functionality is fully integrated in the software.

• Expandability:  

  The CompactStat can be expanded with a wide variety of options and modules, including a Bipotentiostat, True Linear Scan generator, various power boosters, multiplexer and FastScan.  

• Hardware:

 - Automatic current range selection: 1pA to 1A/1mV to 10V
- Automatic variable noise filter and potentiostat/galvanostat stability settings
- Simultaneous acquisition of current/potential and up to 8 peripheral analog signals
- Real time data display up to 500 pnts/s. Acquisition up to 100,000 pnts/s is stored in instrument memory
- Applicable scanrates: 1µV/s to 10,000 V/s
- Minimum interval time/resolution: 10µs
- Result optimalisation by automated tuned filters, gain amplifiers and dc-subtraction

16. QEPRO-Raman Scientific-grade Spectroscopy

The QEPRO-Raman Scientific-grade Spectrometer is a preconfigured combination of detector, optical bench, electronics, probe and laser technologies that provide users with a remarkably sensitive system for demanding low-light level Raman spectroscopy. The QE65000-Raman can achieve up to 90% quantum efficiency with high signal-to-noise and rapid signal processing speed.

QEPRO-Raman Scientific-grade Spectrometer

New! Optical Bench Enhancements

The great performance of our QEPRO-Raman Spectrometer has been enhanced to provide even more value: lower stray light, improved efficiency in the UV and Shortwave NIR, and better unit-to-unit reproducibility.

We are also offering a proprietary low BRDF bench coating to improve stray light performance and provide better reproducibility in unit-to-unit performance.


Quantum Efficiency to 90%

The QEPRO is the most sensitive spectrometer we have ever developed. The Hamamatsu FFT-CCD detector used in the QEPRO-Raman provides 90% quantum efficiency (defined as how efficiently a photon is converted to a photo-electron). Most of our other detectors are linear CCDs but with this “2D” area detector, we can bin (or sum) a vertical row of pixels, which offers significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (>1000:1) and signal processing speed of the detector compared with a linear CCD, where signals are digitally added by an external circuit.


Increased System Sensitivity

In our spectrometers with linear CCDs, the slit’s width, not its height, regulates the amount of light entering the bench because linear CCDs cannot efficiently collect the light from the entire height of the slit. But in the QE65000, the 2D area detector can better take advantage of the height of the slit and the additional light, greatly improving system sensitivity.


Excellent UV Response

Because the detector in the QEPRORaman is back-thinned (or back-illuminated), it has great native response in the UV and does not require the additional coatings that we typically apply to other detectors for UV applications.


Demanding Low Light-level Applications

The QE65000-Raman Spectrometer is a great option for low-light level Raman spectroscopy. The TE-cooled (down to -15 °C) detector features low noise and low dark signal, which enables low-light-level detection and long integration times (analogous to the shutter speed of a camera) from 8 milliseconds to 15 minutes, with virtually no spectral distortion.


Onboard Programming

The QE65000-Raman also has an onboard programmable micro-controller for controlling the spectrometer and accessories. You have access to 10 user-programmable digital inputs/outputs and a pulse generator for triggering other devices. You can use the I/Os to flash a lamp, stop/start a process, and send a message/alarm during the spectrometer’s integration period. The spectrometer’s operating parameters can be controlled through software. In fact, wavelength calibration coefficients unique to each spectrometer are programmed into a memory chip right on the spectrometer.


Plug-and-Play USB Operation

The QE65000-Raman interfaces to a computer via USB 2.0 or RS-232 serial port. Data unique to each spectrometer are programmed into a memory chip on the QE65000; our SpectraSuite Spectroscopy Operating Software reads these values for easy setup and hot swapping among computers, whether they run on Linux, Mac or Windows operating systems.


QE65000-Raman Configuration

The QE65000-Raman is preconfigured with the following, along with SpectraSuite spectrometer operating software, probe (RIP-Probe-785), laser (Laser-785-IP), and our Annual Service Package (ASP) to extend the warranty from 1 year to 2 years.




Dimensions:                                                                     182 mm x 110 mm x 47 mm

Weight:                                                                              1.18 kg (without power supply)


Detector:                                                                           Hamamatsu S7031-1006

Detector range:                                                               200-1100 nm

Pixels:                                                                                1024 x 58 (1044 x 64 total pixels)

Pixel size:                                                                          24.576 μm2

Pixel well depth:                                                             1000 Ke-

Sensitivity:                                                                       ~0.065 counts / e-

Quantum efficiency:                                                      90% peak; 65% at 250 nm

Optical Bench

Design:                                                                             f/4, Symmetrical crossed Czerny-Turner

Focal length:                                                                   101.6 mm input and output

Entrance aperture:                                                         50 µm wide slit

HC6 grating:                                                                     provides 123-170 nm range

Detector     collection lens option:                             None

Collimating    and focusing mirrors:                          Standard only

UV enhanced window:                                                  No

Fiber optic connector:                                                  SMA 905 to 0.22 numerical aperture single-strand optical fiber


Wavelength range:                                                        780 - 1100 nm (Grating dependent)

Optical resolution:                                                         ~0.14-7.7 nm FWHM

Signal-to-noise ratio:                                                    1000:1 (at full signal)

A/D resolution:                                                                16 bit

Dark noise:                                                                      3 RMS counts

Dynamic range:                                                              7.5 x 109 (system), 25000:1 for a single acquisition

Integration time:                                                             8 ms to 15 minutes

Stray light:                                                                       <0.08% at 600 nm; 0.4% at 435 nm

Corrected linearity:                                                        >99.8%


Power consumption:                                                    500 mA @ 5 VDC (no TE cooling); 3.5 A @ 5 VDC (with TE cooling)

Data transfer speed:                                                     Full scans to memory every 7 ms with USB 2.0 port, 18 ms with USB1.1 port, 300 ms with                                                                                             serial port

Inputs/Outputs:                                                              10 onboard digital user-programmable GPIOs (general purpose inputs/outputs)

Analog channels:                                                           No

Auto nulling: Yes

Breakout box compatibility:                                       Yes: HR4-breakout

Trigger modes:                                                               4 modes

Strobe functions:                                                           No

Gated delay feature:                                                      Yes

Connector:                                                                      30-pin connector

Power-up time:                                                              <5 seconds

Dark current:                                                                   4000 e-/pixel/sec @ 25 ºC; 200 e-/pixel/sec @ 0 ºC


Operating systems:                                                       Windows 98/Me/2000/XP/Win7, Mac OS X and Linux with USB port;

                                                                                            Any 32-bit Windows OS with serial port

Computer interfaces:                                                    USB 2.0 @ 480 Mbps; RS-232 (2-wire) @ 115.2 K baud

Peripheral interfaces:                                                    SPI (3-wire); I2C inter-integrated circuit

Temperature and Thermoelectric (TE) Cooling

Temperature limits:                                                        0 ºC to 50.0 ºC; no condensation

Set point:                                                                          Software controlled; lowest set point is 40 ºC below ambient

Stability                                                                               +/-0.1 ºC of set temperature in <2 minutes


PATLAB is equipped with a PinPointer instrument that packs a full-featured Raman system in a true hand-held unit. This is the next generation of the portable Raman spectrometer that was featured in an episode of CSI Miami and a cave exploring documentary by NASA scientists on the National Geographic Channel. The unit is controlled by a miniature Windows computer and features easy-to-use ID-find™ software that provides one-touch identification of unknown substances by immediate comparison of a measured spectrum to the on-board Raman spectral library.

The following figures give viewpoints of the  PinPointer instrument:-

The PinPointer portable instrument has the following benefits:-

Easy and Fast Substance Identification.  Many substances emit a characteristic light when illuminated with a laser, the Raman scatter effect, which uniquely identifies a molecular structure. With a touch of a button, the PinPointer collects and analyzes this scattered light from a chemical under test. The included ID-find software can search thousands of stored reference spectra to identify unknown substances. Within seconds, the detected chemical is identified and its name and properties displayed.

Affordable, Compact, High Performance.  The PinPointer provides the same performance as other handheld Raman spectrometers proposed for homeland security or on-site chemical identification but costs much less.

Wide Chemical Coverage.  The included ID-find software will search a database containing thousands of chemical spectra to find a match within a few seconds after data acquisition. Specialized chemical databases are sold separately. Users can also create their own custom spectral libraries simply by scanning known materials and saving the spectra using the library manager function of ID-find.

Substance ID of Packaged Materials.  Solid, powder or liquid samples can be analyzed while still contained in plastic bags or glass or plastic bottles or vials.

The PinPointer has the following specifications:-


PATLAB has a SUPER-FAST OCEAN FX SPECTROMETER with High Sensitivity, Fast Acquisition Speed and Enhanced Communications. The Ocean FX is a versatile spectrometer distinguished by acquisition speed up to 4,500 scans per second, onboard processing for improved SNR and reduced data transfer time, and robust communications via USB, SPI, Gigabit Ethernet and Wi-Fi. Ocean FX is an excellent choice for high-speed process applications, measurement of fast events, and reaction monitoring.

Ocean FX Spectrometer


• Acquisition speed of up to 4,500 spectra collected per second

• CMOS detector (200-1100 nm) with great sensitivity in the UV and NIR

• Onboard averaging of up to 5,000 spectra

• Onboard buffering (up to 50,000 spectra stored)

• Wired Gigabit Ethernet, Wi-Fi, SPI and USB

• Thermally stable optical bench and indicator LED for convenience

Ocean FX is available in application-ready, custom and OEM spectrometer configurations. The spectrometer can be integrated into other devices as a component, subassembly or turnkey solution.


The PATLAB SUPER-FAST OCEAN FX SPECTROMETER is suitable to be used with the following Measurement Techniques:



Near Infrared


Reflectance & Transmittance.

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